Sports Nutrition

Sports Nutrition

Before training:

French researchers believe that the best food for a workout day is potatoes. Potatoes are high in carbohydrates. Carbohydrates release muscle energy evenly over a period of time. In addition to potatoes, it also has vitamins. It is recommended that each athlete consume 200 to 300 grams of boiled potatoes for about 20 minutes approximately three hours before the race.

After training:

After training, the athlete should drink fluids to compensate for this deficiency; Otherwise, the repair of injuries and injuries to the joints and the recovery of muscle ability will be impaired.

Athletes should not consume tea, coffee or other caffeinated beverages after strenuous exercise. Because these drinks are diuretic. It is true that the athlete intends to quench his thirst by doing this, but the fluid he drinks is much less than the water that comes out with his urine. So the body loses more water again. The best post-race drinks are isotonic drinks. The term isotonic is a fluid whose concentration of salts is the same as that of blood.

Usually the factories that make these drinks add a small amount of sugar to them. Sugar restores the body’s lost energy. If a suitable drink is not available; Always the best choice of water

The difference between athletes’s diet and normal people

An athlete’s diet should be fundamentally different from a normal person’s diet. Athletes, in addition to the necessities of daily life, need fuel for training and competition. Food provides the fuel needed for athletes, but most athletes are unaware of the fuel that is spilled in their tanks. Protein, fat and carbohydrates are your body’s fuel (energy). Not all foods have the same composition in terms of content. Just as race cars need high-octane gasoline. Athletes also need high-carbohydrate foods.


A teenage athlete (especially a growing one) needs more calories than at any other time in life. The energy required also depends on the type of specialized exercise and your exercise program. A medium-sized teenage girl who is moderately active and still growing needs about 2,200 calories a day, while a small 15-year-old girl who is fully grown needs about 1,800 calories or less. Teenage boys in particular need a lot of calories. A teenager at maximum height may need 4,000 calories a day. The amount of calories burned in sports also varies. Training a season before a football team may burn 500 calories or more a day.



Carbohydrates are the best fuel for athletes because they need less oxygen to burn compared to fat and protein.

A high-carbohydrate diet allows you to train harder to rebuild carbohydrates and reduce the time it takes to get back to normal. Diet is especially important during exercise, because if you can train harder, during the race. You can also get higher levels of efficiency. Everyone can get 50-60 percent of their calories from carbohydrates. Each kilogram of body weight will be needed. If you are an endurance athlete, your need for carbohydrates can increase up to 90-70 percent of your daily caloric needs.

Low fat diets are bad and you can not properly absorb many nutrients without it. .


Protein is involved in the growth, maintenance and repair of body tissues when used as a source of energy maintenance. Unlike carbohydrates, it is a precious and inefficient fuel. Protein must first be converted to carbohydrates or fats, which require energy and the production of toxins. You lose water to eliminate toxins, which can lead to dehydration, which is a danger to athletes. The use of protein to provide energy is not compatible with the primary role of protein, ie growth, maintenance and repair of the body.

Because athletes’ bodies are slightly more prone to injury, the athlete needs a little more protein than a non-athlete. If the athlete is on bodybuilding and muscle building programs, he or she needs more protein. For endurance athletes, protein stores a fuel tank and serves as the backbone of carbohydrates. In books, it is recommended that a growing athlete consume about 1.5 grams of protein per kilogram of body weight. A balanced diet meets the athlete’s protein needs and there is no need for protein supplements.Excessive protein intake can lead to severe weakness with increased nitrogen, urea and ammonium. Athletes who do not consume meat and dairy products or have a special vegetarian diet may not need protein.

However, it should always be kept in mind that muscle growth does not increase with eating high-protein foods, but it is exercise that builds muscle.


Although most athletes have a poor perception of fat, you should know that fat is an essential nutrient and plays many vital roles.

Forms skin and body fat.

It regulates your body by making hormones.

It acts as an insulator and protector for internal viscera.

Helps repair damaged tissues and fight infections.

It is a source of energy.

Fats are a way to store energy in the body. Think of fats as a storage tank. You like to have enough storage fuel, but a heavy tank costs you money to lose speed and power.

Athletes need about the same amount of fat as non-athletes. But because athletes need more calories and have to meet their double calorie needs from carbohydrates, the recommended percentage of calories is less than fat (20-25% for athletes. Vs. 20-30% for non-athletes)

For example, a non-athlete and an athlete may both get 600 calories from fat, but 2,000 calories for a non-athlete and 3,000 calories for an athlete. Carbohydrates and protein should provide the extra 1,000 calories an athlete needs.

Fluids and electrolytes

Athletes need to drink extra fluids and electrolytes to keep their body cool. The average adult should drink 10 to 8 glasses of fluids a day. Even on cold days and short-term activities, you should drink more than one non-athlete.

Vitamins and minerals

As you expend more energy, it increases. Your need for many B vitamins, which help the body burn carbohydrates, is found in grains and legumes. B vitamins, and those that help process protein, are found in meat products. And there are dairy products, so you can use a double arrow to eat more of this food and increase your energy needs.


Exercise and dietary supplements

Most nutritionists believe that food is the best source of nutrients. If you eat a variety of foods from cereals, vegetables, fruits, dairy and meat, you will not need vitamin and mineral tablets. Do you have a specific illness or nutritional need that cannot be met with regular food sources, or you do not eat a particular type of food at all (for example, you do not consume milk to other dairy products). The supplement may be beneficial for you.

The following conditions may need to be supplemented:

Lactate deficiency:

People with lactate deficiency are unable to digest milk and some dairy products. If they do not get enough of other calcium-rich foods (such as spinach, cabbage and beans), a calcium supplement may be helpful. Similarly, people who are allergic to milk or do not like milk and milk products are more likely to benefit from calcium supplements. A vegetarian diet, vitamin B12, iron, zinc, and calcium supplements may be needed.

Vitamin or mineral deficiency:

If you are diagnosed with a deficiency of a particular vitamin or mineral, taking a supplement may help.

But how do you know if you have specific needs or if your diet lacks key nutrients?

As an athlete, you will benefit from nutritional assessments to check your recent eating habits, identify what you are following, to show ways to improve, and identify your need for supplements. Experience shows that athletes use supplements that Their diet fully meets these needs and they do not use the right supplement for nutrient deficiencies. A nutritional assessment can fill your nutritional gaps.

Many professional athletes claim to have benefited from taking supplements. However, there are two things to keep in mind about the claims of these athletes: First, many of these professional athletes through very strenuous and strenuous physical activity They may need extra nutrients at some point in their workout. Many of the supplements that are voted on as supplements are seductive and have benefits, perhaps taking a pill instead of drinking three glasses of milk a day. And eat a bowl of beans, it may seem simple, but taking supplements is not an easy solution.The difficult part of evaluating supplement supplements is that, unlike medicines and foods, supplement supplements do not have to be legally proven to be safe or effective. This means that you, as a consumer, must Whether to take a supplement or not, be very careful. Before taking a dietary supplement, answer the following questions:

Is it legal to take supplements?

Many supplements are prohibited for athletes participating in competitions and are considered doping items. So be careful not to mistakenly use a supplement that deprives you of exercise and read the label on the supplement carefully to know for sure. What is in this supplement?

Is it safe to take dietary supplements?

Some supplements (even organic nutrients) can have toxic effects if taken in excess of the recommended amount. Other nutrients may also cause imbalances and deficiencies, depending on how they interact with other nutrients in the body. Unlike medicines, dietary supplements do not undergo extensive safety tests before being sold, so there is a possibility of unintended side effects.

There is an example of a herbal supplement that can have dangerous side effects and 20 deaths have been reported due to its use.

Are dietary supplements effective?

Many qualitative studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of a food. A single study on a small number of people is not enough. Therefore, this question can not be answered correctly.

Is Supplementation Necessary for Athletes?

Although supplements may be legal, safe, and effective (as performance enhancers), it is important to determine if you really need them. For example, many long-distance female runners have low iron stores and can take supplements. Use iron, but if your reserves are normal, this supplement is not necessary for you. Creatine may be of some value to athletes involved in strength training, but if you are an endurance athlete you do not need it and its possible side effects. It is not justifiable. Always keep in mind that there is no diet that makes a normal athlete a champion. Only a proper and rational diet provides the conditions for maximum physical fitness and good performance.

 The role of water in athletes

The role of water in the body

You can live without food for a few weeks, without water for a few days and without oxygen for a few minutes, in other words, except oxygen, water is the most important element we have in our body.

Your body is made up of 55-70% water and about 90-80% of your blood is water. Water is involved in almost all vital processes in the body. Lack of water can lead to mental and physical changes. Water plays the following roles. :

It cleanses the body by washing away toxins produced during normal life.

Provides life for the joints.

Protects the skin from dryness.

Maintains hydration of internal organs.

Controls body temperature.

When the body heats up, water is expelled from the skin in the form of sweat. This is good because sweat evaporates from your skin and your body cools down. There is actually an Air-Conditioner in your body, but because this system works If you do not drink enough water to compensate for the lost sweat, the blood will thicken and blood flow will slow down, which will put pressure on the heart. When you are dehydrated, your body does not have enough water to produce sweat. At this point, your body temperature can rise dangerously high.

Although an average adult loses about 2 liters of water a day, an athlete may lose about 3 liters of water within an hour of strenuous exercise. Dehydration may occur if these lost fluids are not replaced. Complicate.

Dehydration has a severe negative effect on athletic performance. In fact, even mild hydration can reduce body weight by up to one percent by causing dizziness, headaches, and slower reaction times, and can increase the risk of heat stroke.

If left untreated, dehydration can get worse and can be fatal. Watch out for early warning signs in yourself and your teammates to avoid dehydration. If you notice any of these symptoms, tell your coach or get immediate medical attention. Ask.


The question is, is the feeling of thirst always accompanied by the onset of dehydration? The answer is, not always. In many cases, exercise really disrupts the thirst response. During exercise, you lose a lot of water before you feel thirsty and before Completely compensating for your dehydration eliminates the feeling of thirst. So you can not be satisfied with the feeling of thirst to meet your need for water. As an athlete, you need to consciously drink more water than you like, Especially when you exercise in the heat.

Fluid intake in athletes

For all of the above reasons, athletes need to drink water or other beverages before, during and after exercise.

Before exercise: Drink a glass or two of fluids two hours before a race or workout to make sure you are well hydrated. Drink another glass 15 minutes before exercise.

During exercise: Drink 180-120 cc of fluids every 15-15 minutes to replace lost fluids and avoid overheating. Cold fluids are better because they are absorbed quickly and central body heat is absorbed faster. They bring down.

After exercise: It is important to continue to drink fluids after exercise, as it takes time to compensate for dehydration. To ensure that you drink enough, weigh yourself before and after exercise. / 0 kg weight loss Consume at least 500 cc of water. Do not make the mistake that weight loss in exercise is related to fat, because fat is lost gradually and on a scale of several days, will not be determined. Almost all weight loss during Exercise is the source of water.

Symptoms and dangers of dehydration in athletes

Dehydration can occur relatively quickly. National dehydration may also occur within a few days of exercise without drinking enough fluids. The kilograms of weight they lose need water to restore their water balance. Normally you should not lose weight during the day, even 2% weight loss can lead to reduced efficiency and is a sign of mild dehydration.

In addition to water, some athletes need to replace the sodium and potassium electrolytes that are lost in sweat. This is especially true in sports that last more than an hour. Many sports drinks contain concentrations of electrolytes and Carbohydrates are what regulate water absorption. In addition, the electrolytes in sports drinks stimulate thirst, which stimulates a person to drink and compensates for dehydration. Sports drinks are most useful for endurance athletes as well as people who train as much as possible on a daily basis, or participate in several competitions in one day or have two training sessions per day.

If taste and aversion prevent you from drinking the fluids you need, choose the drink according to your taste. (Juices, plain water, mineral water, sports drinks, lemonade) You can also choose foods that have a lot of water (such as watermelon, Tomatoes, lettuce, soups) However, be aware that caffeinated beverages, such as coffee and tea, have the opposite effect. Caffeine increases the body’s need to urinate and should therefore be avoided when restoring lost fluids. Avoid them. Similarly, alcohol has a dehydrating effect.

Why are athletes always trying to lose weight?

With today’s emphasis on losing as much weight as possible, many athletes are constantly striving to lose weight, however, weight loss is not always a factor in improving athletic performance. In fact, many sports nutritionists believe that body weight is more than the actual effect. It focuses on the performance of athletes. Athletes usually seek to lose weight for one of three reasons:

Attending beautiful sports (such as gymnastics, diving, skating)

Speed ​​up (for example, in two, cycling)

Reaching a certain weight category (like wrestling, bodybuilding)

Can weight loss always increase athletic performance?

Athletes sometimes overlook the goals of sports competition and try to reach a weight that is detrimental to their health and performance. Before discussing how to lose weight safely, it is important that achieving a lower weight is always the best way to. It does not improve efficiency.

Some athletes have interpreted that the minimum weight is the most desirable body weight. But the optimal body weight is actually a weight that is both good health and performance and it is rational to gain and maintain it. In other words, you have to weigh Reach your optimum and not the minimum weight.

If you’ve never been able to reach your goal weight, then your goal was probably not realistic and should be reconsidered. Struggling to reach an unrealistic goal weight can cause a great deal of emotional and physical stress and distraction. Distract you from your exercise program and cause your performance to be damaged due to unbalanced eating habits.

What is the minimum amount of body fat in male and female athletes?

It is recommended that in male athletes the percentage of body fat should not be below 5-7% and in female athletes below 14% of body weight.

Before deciding on a weight loss program, spend some time on why you want to lose weight and seek the advice of an experienced professional.

What is the optimal amount of weight loss per week?

There is a simple formula for weight loss, you need to burn more calories than you consume. If you have a regular exercise program, you should be able to lose 0.5-1 kg per week by gently reducing your calorie intake. (This reduction should not exceed 500 calories per day).

When is the best time for athletes to lose weight?

But keep in mind that even a small reduction in calorie intake during periods of heavy training deprives your body of the nutrients it needs to build muscle and function optimally. It is therefore recommended that weight athletes Reduce themselves during competition closures to avoid the harmful effects of dietary restrictions during the competition season.

What is the role of iron in the body and how much it is needed in male and female athletes?

Iron plays several important roles in your body. It builds red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body, helps convert food into energy, and helps fight infections. Iron plays a role in carrying oxygen, especially during Exercise is important. Without iron, your body will not be able to make healthy red blood cells and deliver enough oxygen to muscles, brain and other organs. A noticeable loss in iron stores is called iron deficiency anemia. In general, women need more iron than men to make up for lost iron during menstruation, but athletes probably do not need much more iron than non-athletes. Although there is some ambiguity in medical research. Obtained from diet. Of course, this requires good eating habits.

The biggest problem with iron is that it is not very abundant. Each 1000 calories contains an average of 6 mg of iron and women need 15 mg per day (men need 10 mg per day). Low in calories Most of the time iron is not needed (because men get more calories and need less, they are less likely to have iron deficiency). Emphasis on high carb and low fat diets by athletes plays a role in low iron. Red meat, which is commonly avoided by athletes, is one of the richest sources of iron. High-carbohydrate non-meat foods contain less iron. The severity of the problem increases.

In addition to limited access to iron, its absorption is low and varies from 2 to 40 percent depending on the food source. Around 25-35 percent of the iron in meat is absorbed, while only 2-20 percent of iron in plant sources is absorbed. Turns.

As you can see, the answer to the question of whether female athletes need more iron is unclear. However, because iron is an important nutrient for performance, in a female athlete if she is on a vegetarian diet. Or trying to lose weight, it is probably wise to take an iron supplement to correct your dietary deficiencies.

What is the role of calcium in the body and the amount needed for it in male and female athletes?

Calcium helps your bones to be able to withstand the weight of stress. In healthy people, the bones store more calcium in response to exercise and become more concentrated in areas of stress. Athletes may have fractures (cracks). Small in the bone, which often occurs in the lower legs.) Due to double stress or weak bones. Insufficient calcium intake can weaken the bones and make them more susceptible to fractures. In women athletes when A girl reaches puberty and menstruation begins, the production of estrogen in her body also plays a role in her bone density.Estrogen produced as part of the monthly menstrual cycle increases the absorption of oral calcium by the bones and the body has a positive effect on bone strength.

Menstruation is sometimes interrupted or menstrual periods are very irregular in women who are low in body fat and do strenuous exercise. This condition is called amenorrhea and can have a significant effect on a woman’s bone density. Because stopping the menstrual cycle also means lower estrogen production in the body, this can lead to less calcium deposition in the bones.

Calcium deficiency has two short-term and long-term effects. The first problem is that low bone density can lead to fractures. Long-term effects include osteoporosis or osteoporosis (brittle bones) in later life.

The need for calcium in men and women, athletes and non-athletes is the same and is 1200 mg per day. If athletes get the calories they need, they can easily meet their calcium needs. Milk is much better than calcium supplements. In addition to calcium, it provides protein, carbohydrates, magnesium, phosphorus, boron and riboflavin.

In some situations, athletes need to find a substitute for milk. When athletes are lactose intolerant, enzyme replacement is recommended, and if they are not effective, high-calcium foods such as spinach, cabbage and cauliflower are recommended. It is mostly on food and supplements are used as a last resort.

How do pre-race foods affect an athlete’s performance?

There is no food that can be consumed in the day or hours before the race and thus compensate for the wrong eating habit during exercise. Just as it takes months to reach the highest level of physical fitness, it takes months to reach the desired nutritional status. Proper nutrition during exercise will help you train harder. Increase muscle mass and gain the energy reserves needed for the best performance in the competition. Pre-race food as the last step of the diet. Look at exercise time and a magical love that increases your performance from average to excellent.

Is pre-race nutrition the same for all athletes?

Although you may want to know exactly when, what, and how much to eat, there is no specific advice for all athletes. There is no one-size-fits-all procedure. You need to find out for yourself what food to eat. It is better for you. For example, some runners can eat within an hour before a big race. Others get stomach cramps if they eat close to strenuous activity. Some athletes like low-volume food. Eat to calm their stomach and nerves. Some will feel weak and unwell.Gain experiences over the months of your workout to find the best program and type of food for you. Of course, this requires trial and error. So do not let these experiences take up the last days before a big race.

When is pre-race food consumed?

The time of eating more food than the race depends on its volume and the time of day of the race. Protein and fat are absorbed more slowly. Therefore, foods containing protein and fat should be consumed earlier than high carbohydrate foods. Digesting large foods takes a long time. It kills, while small, liquid foods are digested faster.

What ingredients should pre-race food preferably contain?

To be most effective, you also need to get good fluids. All pre-race meals should contain plenty of beverages (juice, water and sports drinks).

What is the best diet plan for morning and evening exercise for each athlete?

Exercises in the morning: When preparing for a competition in the morning, eat a full meal high in carbohydrates the night before the race. Complete your dinner with a high-carb snack at bedtime. Early in the morning Wake up to have a light breakfast or snack. Depending on when you have time before the race, you can include some protein and fat in your diet. For example, a runner preparing for the 10am race can have a bowl containing Eat whole grains, a glass of juice and bananas (which provide about 400-300 calories) at 7.30 or 8am.

Afternoon races: Eat a hearty breakfast (for example, cookies, fruit, milk or yogurt, which has about 700 calories.) Depending on the time of the race, lunch may be a light snack containing 300 calories (for example, a A piece of bread and a piece of fruit or a medium-sized meal containing protein and fat and 700-500 calories (for example, a sandwich, fruit and salt)

Competitions that are held in the evening: Before the evening competition, have a hearty breakfast and lunch, then a light carbohydrate snack two hours before the competition. Postpone dinner until the end of the competition.

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