Basics of pathology

Basics of pathology

There are different types of sports injuries, but there are specific parts of the body that are most at risk for injury. In this article, we will introduce you to the most common sports injuries and we will also explain the ways to prevent and treat them.

Tip: Resting, freezing, squeezing and holding high is one of the most common treatments for sports injuries.

  1. Achilles tendonitis
    When the tendon behind the knee – the Achilles tendon – is used too much, it will cause pain and swelling in that area. If left untreated, the injury becomes so severe that it makes running completely difficult and impossible. This injury is more common in runners and athletes who deal with running or jumping.

Prevention and treatment: Giving stretching and strength exercises to the muscles and muscles of the leg can prevent this injury. Rest and anti-inflammatory therapies and strengthening the calf muscles are the best possible treatments for this complication. Do not start exercising until the complication is completely resolved as it will aggravate the condition.

  1. Brain concussion
    This injury is caused by a blow to the head. Symptoms include dizziness, visual disturbances, headache, memory loss, loss of balance, difficulty concentrating, and nausea. This injury is not necessarily associated with anesthesia. This complication is more common in collision sports such as football, boxing and hockey. Of course, it also happens a lot in sports such as skiing and gymnastics. Although most people return to normal after a few weeks, a stroke can lead to serious injuries in many people.

Prevention and treatment: The best way to prevent concussion is to avoid collision exercises. But for most people, this does not seem like a good solution. Rest is the best way to treat this complication. If you have a headache, you can use acetaminophen painkillers. Depending on the severity of the blow, you should avoid re-engaging exercises for several hours to several months.

  1. Stretching the thigh muscles
    This complication occurs when you suddenly change direction when running in sports such as football and volleyball. Symptoms include deep pain, swelling, and sometimes bruising inside the thigh.

Prevention and treatment: The best way to prevent this complication is to do stretching exercises before exercise. It is better to increase the intensity of exercise gradually to reduce the possibility of this condition. Rest and anti-inflammatory therapies are the best treatments for this injury. Avoid strenuous activity for a week or two after the onset of the complication. After the complication occurs, apply ice to the injured area to heal, after which you can stretch and strengthen the muscles.

  1. Leg pain and swelling
    This complication is more common in people who are not accustomed to mobility and exercise. Sudden increase in pressure and intensity of exercise, wearing old shoes and running and jumping on very hard ground can also cause this complication.

Prevention and treatment: Wearing the right shoes, doing stretching exercises before exercise, and not suddenly increasing the intensity of exercise are the best ways to prevent this condition. Freezing, stretching, and anti-inflammatory therapies are the best treatments.

  1. Low back pain
    Although it is more common in obese and sedentary people, it can also occur in runners, cyclists, golfers and tennis players. The most important cause of this complication is incorrect and incorrect stretching movements.

Prevention and treatment: Although most types of this complication are not preventable, doing the right stretching exercises before exercising and warming up properly reduces the likelihood of it occurring. Suggested treatments include rest, anti-inflammatory drugs, and muscle stretching.

  1. Muscle and muscle strain
    Improper body warm-up, fatigue, inflexibility and disability and weakness are all factors that cause muscle tension in athletes. The most common muscles that are stretched are the muscles behind the thighs (in sports that involve running, such as running, basketball) and the calf muscles (in tennis players). Of course, other muscles are also trying to stretch according to the desired exercise.

Prevention and treatment: The best way to prevent such a complication is to do proper stretching exercises before and after exercising and to avoid exercising when tired and weak. Rest and anti-inflammatory drugs, like other injuries, are the best treatment for this complication. It is good to stretch the muscles a little gently. When the condition starts to improve, you can start exercising again, but from time to time pause between exercises and stretch your muscles to fully recover.

  1. Elbow injuries in tennis and golf
    Surprisingly, this injury accounts for 7% of all sports injuries. In this sports injury, the elbow tendons are damaged due to repeated backhand kicks in tennis and cause pain in the inner part of the elbow, although sometimes the outer part may also be injured.

Prevention and treatment: The best way to prevent this injury is to do forearm and arm strengthening exercises. It can also be helpful to modify the way you hit the racket and use the elbow strap. Rest and anti-inflammatory drugs are good for treating this condition, but in some situations physiotherapy and quitting exercise may be necessary for a long time.

  1. Sprains and sprains of the ankle
    This injury is very common among people who play football, hockey, basketball and volleyball. It can be said that it is inevitable in sports that deal with running and jumping. These movements can cause the ankle to twist and sometimes rupture a tendon or ligament. An x-ray can show if the limb is fractured.

Prevention and treatment: Strengthening the ankle with gentle movements, tying the wrist or using a wrist brace can prevent this from happening, but there is no guarantee that you will not be injured if you fall or make wrong movements. Ankle sprains can be treated with rest and anti-inflammatory drugs. But by no means rest more than one day. You should try to gently shake and rotate your ankle to reduce swelling.

  1. Shoulder injury
    20% of sports injuries are related to the shoulder, which includes dislocations, sprains and bruises. This injury is more common in sports such as tennis, swimming, weightlifting, baseball and volleyball. Symptoms include pain, muscle cramps, and a feeling of weakness and inability in the shoulder.

Prevention and treatment: To prevent the occurrence of this complication, which usually occurs when you have not used your shoulder for some time. Like the league holidays, it is best to strengthen your muscles with weights before you start exercising. The best treatment for this complication is rest and anti-inflammatory drugs.

  1. Knee injuries in runners
    Knee injuries make up 55% of sports injuries and are almost always treated by an orthopedic surgeon. Of course, runners are not the only victims of this sports injury. Cyclists, swimmers, people who do aerobics, and those who play soccer, basketball, and volleyball may also be affected. In this complication, excessive use of the knee causes discomfort and damage to the tendon under the kneecap.

Prevention and treatment: Change your shoes or insoles regularly and use the right type. Take more breaks between workouts. If your knee is injured, refrain from exercising for at least two days and take anti-inflammatory drugs. Before starting the exercise again, be sure to warm yourself well and use ice on the injured area.

Prevention is the best treatment
Most sports injuries are caused by not warming up properly and doing stretching exercises incorrectly before exercising. A sudden increase in exercise intensity can also hurt you. Therefore, the best way to prevent doing correct stretching movements before and after exercise and increase the intensity of exercise in proportion to your skills and experience in that sport.

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