Basic concepts of physical fitness

Basic concepts of physical fitness

The main purpose of physical fitness is to increase the practical abilities of athletes and to develop their abilities to the highest norms. Athletes who have good physical fitness learn sports skills better and perform them better.

In a purposeful training program: In the first stage, the athlete achieves general physical fitness and in the second stage, specific physical fitness begins.

General physical fitness

The main goal of general physical fitness, regardless of the characteristics of the sport in question, is to improve the work capacity of athletes. The higher the work capacity of athletes, the better the adaptation will be with a gradual increase in training pressure..

Special physical fitness

Special physical fitness is formed according to the general physical fitness and with the aim of increasing the physical progress of athletes and the physiological and methodological characteristics of the desired field.

In special physical fitness, goals should be focused on goals that are related to the technical skills as well as the tactical and psychological skills of the desired sport. Special physical fitness can be achieved only when the intensity of training is high and the volume of training is low.

Definition of physical fitness

World Health Organization: Physical fitness Ability to do satisfying muscle work

US Supreme Council of Physical Education: Physical Fitness The ability of a person to perform the tasks of daily living without feeling tired, and having the energy to deal with the unexpected and healthy recreation.

Definition: Physical fitness is the increase of physical abilities of a person through various sports exercises to achieve specific goals of health and championship.

Physical fitness components

1- Physical fitness related to health

2 – Physical fitness associated with the implementation of sports skills

The components of physical fitness related to health and well-being are:

Cardiovascular endurance

Muscular endurance

the power


Body composition

Physical fitness related to the performance of sports skills is related to the components and elements of physical fitness that help a person to perform better sports skills and success in sports competitions and competitions, and the goal is only to achieve the highest level of physical abilities, which includes : Speed, agility, balance, coordination and power.


The importance of endurance

Endurance means resistance and perseverance in doing something or against a force.

Endurance is one of the most important elements of physical fitness and the basis of many sports activities such as running, swimming, cycling, wrestling, football and…

Cardiovascular endurance (blood circulation and respiration)

This ability is one of the most important components of physical fitness, which is called the ability of the circulatory and respiratory systems to deliver oxygen to body tissues and transport waste products out of iodine.

In other words, the maximum work that a person can do continuously and continuously for a long time with a large muscle group is called the Cooper post test.

Cardiovascular endurance means the body’s ability to provide oxygen to active muscles for a long time. The important goal of endurance training on the circulatory system and breathing is to develop muscle work, which is divided into two types: aerobic and anaerobic

Anaerobic exercise

It is called intense and short exercises

In this type of exercise, a person works to her full potential and gets her energy from instant fuel ATP, which is made without oxygen and has no effect on the circulatory and respiratory systems.

Aerobic exercises

The term aerobic means the presence of oxygen and refers to those activities in which the stages of energy production take place in the presence of oxygen.

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